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Asset Allocation

Категорія — Загальні поняття
By Andrey Kan, Latin America Group of Cbonds
Updated June 25, 2024

What is Asset Allocation?

Asset allocation is important for strategic distribution of investments within your portfolio among different asset classes such as cash equivalents, stocks or bonds. This process aims to achieve a balance that aligns with your financial goals and risk tolerance. The goal of the right asset allocation is to diversify your investments, reducing the risk associated with putting all your eggs in one basket. It’s a crucial aspect of investment strategy that helps optimize returns while managing risk.

Why Asset Allocation Matters

  1. Optimizing Returns. Each asset class generates varying returns and reacts differently to market conditions. Consequently, by diversifying investments across asset classes, an investor can strive to optimize portfolio returns. This strategy takes advantage of the strengths of each asset class while mitigating potential weaknesses.

  2. Minimizing Risks. All investments carry inherent risks, but the degree of risk varies between asset classes. Some investments may be riskier than others. Asset allocation ensures that a portfolio is well-diversified, spreading risk across different asset classes. By doing so, investors reduce the overall risk associated with their investments. In essence, it’s a strategy of not putting all your eggs in one basket.

  3. Alignment with Time Horizon. An individual’s investment goals and risk tolerance are closely tied to their time horizon. A well-structured portfolio needs to cater to both short-term and long-term needs. Asset allocation assists investors in striking the right balance between investments designed for short-term goals and those aimed at achieving long-term objectives. For example, a mix of equities, debt, and cash can align with the varying time horizons of different financial goals.

  4. Minimizing Taxes. Tax implications can significantly affect an investor’s returns. Different asset classes are subject to different tax treatments. By strategically allocating investments across asset classes, investors can work to minimize their overall tax liability. This includes considering tax-efficient investment vehicles and taking advantage of tax-saving opportunities within their portfolio.

Asset Allocation

How Asset Allocation Works

Asset allocation is a fundamental strategy in portfolio management, and it works by diversifying investments across various asset classes. This strategy is grounded in the basic principle that different asset classes offer different returns and react differently to market conditions. Here’s a breakdown of how asset allocation works.

  1. Diversification of Investments. The core principle of asset allocation is diversification. Financial advisors typically recommend diversifying investments to reduce portfolio volatility and manage risk effectively. By spreading investments across asset classes, investors aim to create a well-rounded diversified portfolio that can weather various market conditions.

  2. Reducing Volatility. Volatility in financial markets can lead to significant fluctuations in the value of investments. Asset allocation helps mitigate this volatility by balancing investments in asset classes that may respond differently to market dynamics. For example, when one asset class experiences a downturn, another may perform better, helping to stabilize the overall portfolio.

  3. Protection Against Losses. One of the key benefits of asset allocation is that it acts as a shield against the potential deterioration of investments. Since different asset classes often have varying risk profiles, losses in one asset class can be offset by gains in another. This strategy helps investors safeguard their portfolios and reduce the impact of market downturns.

Best Asset Allocation Strategies

  1. Strategic Asset Allocation. This method involves establishing and adhering to a base policy mix that consists of a proportional combination of assets based on expected rates of return for each asset class. It takes into account your risk tolerance and investment time-frame. You set your targets and periodically rebalance your portfolio. Strategic asset allocation is similar to a buy-and-hold strategy and emphasizes diversification to reduce risk and improve returns. For instance, if historically, stocks have returned 10% per year and bonds 5%, a 50% stocks and 50% bonds mix would aim for an expected return of 7.5% per year.

  2. Constant-Weighting Asset Allocation. Unlike strategic asset allocation, which implies a buy-and-hold approach, constant-weighting asset allocation involves continuously rebalancing your portfolio. When one asset class declines in value, you purchase more of it, and when it increases, you sell. Typically, the portfolio is rebalanced to its original mix when any asset class moves more than 5% from its original value.

  3. Tactical Asset Allocation. Tactical asset allocation introduces flexibility into a long-term strategic allocation strategy. It allows for short-term deviations from the mix to capitalize on unusual or exceptional investment opportunities. This strategy adds a market-timing element, enabling you to adapt to economic conditions more favorable for certain asset classes. It is moderately active, with the aim of returning to the long-term asset position once short-term objectives are met.

  4. Dynamic Asset Allocation. Dynamic asset allocation is an active strategy where you constantly adjust the mix of assets in response to market fluctuations and changes in the economic climate. You sell assets that are declining and buy those that are rising. This approach is the opposite of a constant-weighting strategy and involves actively managing your portfolio based on market conditions.

  5. Insured Asset Allocation. In this strategy, you set a base portfolio value that should not be allowed to drop. As long as the portfolio achieves returns above this base, active management is applied, with a focus on optimizing portfolio value. If the portfolio drops to the base value, you shift to risk-free assets like Treasuries. At this point, you may consult with an financial advisor to reallocate assets or even change your investment strategy entirely. Insured asset allocation suits risk-averse investors who desire active portfolio management with a guaranteed floor to protect against significant declines.

  6. Integrated Asset Allocation. Integrated asset allocation takes into account both economic expectations and risk when establishing an asset mix. It considers expectations of future market returns and your risk tolerance. This strategy combines aspects of the previous strategies but doesn’t include both dynamic and constant-weighting allocation, as they would compete with each other.

Popular Investment Choices

  1. Stocks. Stocks have historically offered the highest returns among the three major asset categories, making them a portfolio’s "heavy hitter" in terms of potential for growth. However, stocks are also associated with the greatest risk and can be quite volatile in the short term. Even large company stocks have experienced losses about one out of every three years, with occasional dramatic declines. Despite the short-term volatility, investors who are willing to hold stocks for extended periods generally have been rewarded with strong positive returns.

  2. Bonds. Bonds are generally less volatile than stocks but provide more modest returns. They are considered a relatively safer option. Investors approaching a financial goal may increase their bond holdings relative to stocks to reduce risk, even though bonds offer lower potential for growth. Some categories of bonds, like high-yield or junk bonds, can offer higher returns but come with higher risk.

  3. Cash and Cash Equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents, such as savings deposits, certificates of deposit, treasury bills, money market deposit accounts, and money market funds, are the safest investments with the lowest returns. The risk of losing money on cash equivalents is extremely low, as many of them are guaranteed by the federal government. The primary concern with cash equivalents is inflation risk, where inflation may erode investment returns over time.

Examples of Asset Allocation

Investor A: 22 years old, 40 years to retirement, high risk tolerance

  • 80% stocks (40% large-cap stocks, 30% mid-cap stocks, 30% small-cap stocks)

  • 15% bonds

  • 5% cash

Investor A has a long investment horizon and a high risk tolerance. They are focused on growing their retirement savings over the next 40 years and are willing to endure market fluctuations for the potential of higher returns. Their portfolio is heavily skewed towards stocks, including a mix of large-cap, mid-cap, and small-cap stocks, which historically have the potential for higher returns.

Investor B: 40 years old, 15 years to retirement, moderate risk tolerance

  • 60% stocks (60% large-cap stocks, 20% mid-cap stocks, 20% small-cap stocks)

  • 30% bonds

  • 10% cash

Investor B has a moderate risk tolerance and a shorter time horizon of 15 years until retirement. They aim to balance growth with risk management, as they have less time to recover from major market losses. Their portfolio includes a mix of stocks and bonds to offer modest upside potential while providing some protection against significant market downturns.

Investor C: 60 years old, beginning retirement now, low risk tolerance

  • 30% stocks (100% large-cap stocks)

  • 50% bonds

  • 20% cash

Investor C is in the early stages of retirement and has a less risk tolerance. Their primary goal is capital preservation to make sure their retirement savings last for the next 20 or more years. As such, their portfolio is heavily weighted towards bonds and cash, with a small allocation to stocks, primarily large-cap stocks, for limited upside potential while minimizing risk.

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